Ribosomes - Protein Synthesis. Protein synthesis gives a more basic summary and overview of protein synthesis and makes a good starting point for those who are new to this topic. The article below is more detailed. See also: the cell nucleus and DNA Ribosomes are factories that manufacture proteins for cells.
diptnyc.com: Cell Structure: Ribosomes
The central dogma of molecular biology sometimes Crick's central dogma after Francis Crick who coined the term and discovered some of the principles states that the flow of genetic information is " DNA to RNA to protein ". With a few notable exceptions , all biological cells conform to this rule. This process is therefore broken down into three steps: transcription , translation , and replication. By new knowledge of the RNA processing, a fourth step must be included: splicing.
Ribosomes - Protein Construction Teams
The nucleolus is by far the most easily recognized substructure in the eukaryotic nucleus , and can be seen by using a variety of dyes as well as by phase contrast microscopy. Indeed, in budding yeast, the single nucleolus takes up nearly half of the nucleus. Cells from other species often have multiple nucleoli. Once the subunits have been assembled, they are transported out of the nucleolus to the cytoplasm for use in translation protein synthesis. Nucleoli are not static structures.
The eukaryotic pre-mRNA undergoes extensive processing before it is ready to be translated. The additional steps involved in eukaryotic mRNA maturation create a molecule with a much longer half-life than a prokaryotic mRNA. Eukaryotic mRNAs last for several hours, whereas the typical E. This moiety protects the nascent mRNA from degradation. In addition, initiation factors involved in protein synthesis recognize the cap to help initiate translation by ribosomes.